Malaria is one of the world’s deadliest communicable diseases. It was first discovered by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran who was a French army surgeon. He made his discovery was stationed in Constantine, Algeria on November 6th, 1880 (Cdc.gov, 2015). Since then, Malaria has spread to almost all continents of the world causing many deaths especially among children and pregnant women. It is found in 106 countries and territories worldwide. The disease is rampant in warmer regions that are closer to the Equator, for instance, in sub-Saharan Africa where transmission is all year round.
There are several epidemiological determinants of Malaria outbreak. The mosquitos have been referred to as the world’s most dangerous animals as they are the main vectors of malaria. There are around 3500 species of mosquito and those that belong to the subset Anopheles are responsible for transmitting the disease (Map.ox.ac.uk, 2015). Also, there are suitable breeding sites for mosquitos thus facilitating their existence. Environmental factors play a big in the Malaria outbreaks. Sufficient tropical temperatures, humidity, and soil moisture facilitate the favorable living conditions for the Malaria parasites in the areas that they exist therefore making it hard for them to be controlled (Mayoclinic.org, 2015). Repeated exposure to Malaria and the weak immune system has also played a role in the global malaria outbreak. The pregnant women and children are the most venerable group of people to malaria.
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite, is found in all continents that lie in the intertropical zone. The recent researches have revealed that the parasite is present African Monkeys, demonstrating that they were the origin of malaria. A large international study published recently has shown that the Plasmodium falciparum crossed the oceans slave ships (IRD, 2012). The research team was able to demonstrate that the parasite found in the United States has African Origin. Also, the study reveals that the parasite colonized the U.S through two different routes as scientists have identified two different genetic groups, one in North America and the other one in South America (IRD, 2012). The genetic groups came from different trade routes. The parasite found in the Asia is different to that in the Americas thus demonstrating that they reached through a different route. Also, the parasite has been spread to various parts of the world by travelers. With increased globalization, people travel from one part of the world to another. In the case that the traveler is suffering from malaria, s/he will be able to transfer the parasites from one part to another. In 2006, malaria outbreak occurred in African countries of Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania that caused most of the 247 million malaria cases in the world and it was spread globally mainly by travelers (Greenfacts.org, 2015). There are 3.4 billion people living in areas that are at the risk of malaria transmission.
The disease is a leading cause of deaths with the World Health Organization estimating 198 million clinical reported cases and 500,000 deaths …