Causes of Brain Drain & Retention
Abraham Maslow proposed the idea about the hierarchy of human needs in 1943 and named this concept the theory of human motivation. He introduced the stages through which human motivation gradually moved through and they resembled the concepts from other theories about psychological development of people. These stages are ranked from bottom to top, the bottom ones being the most important. Human development moves from physiological needs through need for safety and belongingness, love, esteem to self-actualization, the highest level of human needs (Jerome 40). From this point of view Suzanne Chalmers has her basic needs from physiological to love/belonging satisfied, yet her work gets a bit boring. Self –actualization becomes possible when a human employs his/her intellectual and creative potential to the full, and it does not happen if a person is bored (41). Chalmers’s future employment in a start-up company may be viewed as an attempt to apply her skills and talent in full scope, because a newly created firm faces more challenges and offers more opportunities to explore new professional fields or even reorganize the developing company so that it better met the requirements of the market and offered the unique product created by talented employees.
API was a long established company that offered good compensation yet required performing similar kinds of work or limited its operating focus to one particular fragment of the industry. The issue of money seems secondary because Chalmers is already a millionaire (McShane & von Glinow 522), and the prospect of earning money on her stock share in the future (if the start-up survives and starts generating profit) is too vague and doubtful to make a real financial incentive. Four Drive Theory (the name coined in 2002 by Drs. Lawrence and Nohria) relates human motivation to a combination and interaction of powerful needs that make a basis of human psychology (Nohria, Groysberg& Lee 45). These needs developed through human evolution and secured the survival and adaptation of the humankind in various historical and natural conditions. These drives are elemental, they cannot be further split into more primitive impulses. These drives are to acquire, to bond, to comprehend, and to defend (Nohria, Groysberg& Lee 46). They all influence, among others, the reactions and behaviours of people in their working environment. Case of Suzanne Chalmers is related to acquire and comprehend drives, as other two drives are obviously being regularly satisfied judging by her financial and personal security and success. So they do not seem to influence her behaviour to such an extent.
The ‘acquire’ and ‘comprehend’ components of motivation are closely related to professional path and working experiences of an individual. Namely, learning drive determines if an individual feels that he/she is learning or creating something new in their workplace and if this knowledge/creation is used and appreciated by co-workers, management and/or customers. If this drive is activated and fulfilled, a person will experience job satisfaction. Chalmers speaks …