Cubism (fr. Cubisme, cube - a cube), the direction of the French art of 1900-1910's, initiated by the joint work of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in the decade before the First World War. Heyday reached in 1911-1918. Due to the works of artists of this trend is characterized by the predominance of straight lines, sharp edges and cubic forms.
The term "cubism" was first used by the critic Leon Vaucelles in 1908, describing the marriage work, rejected by the Salon d'Automne. “While Rousseau's work was not easily classified into any definitive artistic style of the time – impressionism, post-impressionism, fauvism or cubism – it has been considered a forerunner of surrealism because of its dream-like sensibility” (Henderson, 4).Cubism is a complex artistic phenomenon, bringing together painters and sculptors, musicians and poets.
A simple formulation of the main objectives and principles of Cubism to quite difficult; painting can be divided into three phases of this trend, reflecting the different aesthetic concepts, and consider each separately: Cezanne (1907-1909), analytical (1909-1912) and the synthetic (1913-1914) Cubism. “Cubism shows us that human perception does not rely on exact geometry and is tolerant to a rearrangement of mid-level object parts” (Ginosar et. al 2).This is usually called the first phase of Cubism, which is characterized by a tendency to abstraction and simplifying the forms of objects. According to one of the first researchers of contemporary art Andre Salmon, Cubism was a reaction to the lack of form in Impressionism, and its development is required to post-impressionist ideas, especially the Symbolist artists who opposed the purely pictorial objectives and interests of the Impressionist phenomenon of semantic order. It followed the trend of the end of the 19th century, transcendentalism.
They argued that this reality has an idea, and not the reflection of the material world. The role of the artist, therefore, is to create symbolic forms to implement ideas, not simulate the changeable appearance of things. This concept has become an occasion to analyze the resources at the disposal of the artist, the elucidation of their expressive possibilities and expressive statement of the ideal of pure art, like music, little dependent on the outside world. In Symbolist experiments in this area relates primarily to the line and color, but this analytical approach, once applied, will inevitably lead to the analysis of the form.
The direct impact on the formation of Cubism had experimented with a form of painting by Paul Cezanne. In 1904 and 1907 in Paris an exhibition of his works was hold. In the portrait of Gertrude Stein, Picasso created in 1906; it was felt fascination with the art of Cezanne. Then Picasso painted Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which was considered the first step towards Cubism. It is probably embodied the artist's interest in primitive Iberian and Negro sculpture. During 1907 and in early 1908 Picasso continued to use in his works form the Negro sculpture (later the time was called "Negro" period in his work).In the autumn of 1907 …