ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
A gradual shift from products to services in industrialization have been observed throughout the whole process under the influence of economic and social aspects.
1 A. Research Topic:
Economic and Social Aspects of Industrialization in Historical Perspective
1 B. Connection to the Course Themes:
Humans and the Environment: First of all, the concept of human work has been changed under the influence of industrialization in terms of productivity, quality, safety and other important aspects. What an average worker in an industrial country produces today in as long as half an hour could take a whole day to a worker more than a century ago. Second of all, it is considered by a number of researchers that industrialization accompanied by growth of industry and urbanization led to extensive population growth due to increase in birth rates and reduction of the death rates, and infant mortality in particular, better sanitation, housing and more varied diets etc.Globalization: Starting from industrial revolution in 1750-1825 in Great Britain, industrialization spread quickly to the United States, central and northwest Europe, Japan, Russia, as well as to other parts of the world and very fast became a global issue.
Economic consequences of rapid industrial development worldwide in the 19th century were urbanization, rise of international trade and international migration.Diverse Ways of Thinking: With rapid urbanization and population growth, caused by industrialization, people’s attitude to work and to life in general have changed. They started to live and work in a faster pace and in increasing competition. In order to increase their productivity, people started to consider improving the “quality” of their labor through education; people’s attitude to and the role of education has changed dramatically.The Roots of Contemporary Conflicts: The practice has shown that with development of modern machinery and technical devices some sorts of professions disappeared all the time. There are concerns that in near future robots will replace workers in different spheres and a lot of people will be unemployed.
Karmarkar, Uday S., Kihoon Kim, and Hosun Rhim. 2015. "Industrialization, Productivity And The Shift To Services And Information". Readcube. November 2015. Accessed January 15, 2016. http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1111/poms.12379.
The article discusses a significant shift from products to services in recent years in all major world economies with particular emphasis on the U.S. economy. Another interesting trend mentioned by the authors of the article is a shift from physical (as it was common in two previous centuries) to an information-intensive industry sectors in terms of GNP and employment. By the 1990s, the United States, as well as other major world economies are sometimes referred to as information economies. The researchers stated that over 85% of GNP and of employment with regard to the number of jobs were attributed to service sectors already in 2007. The roots of these contemporary issues are traced back by the authors to the 19th century industrial revolution when increase in productivity resulted in the growth of manufacturing. The researchers refer to …