Neorealism and Neoliberalism
In the late 70-s of XX century, after a significant theoretical and methodological crisis of classical realism, coupled with sharp criticism of its principles and methods of research of the representatives of the theory of modernism, it began its renaissance, which was expressed in the revival of interest in classical realist works and became a harbinger of Neorealism.
“Increasingly, constructivists have lumped neorealism and neoliberalism together as rationalist approaches to international politics that share an individualist and materialist ontology, as opposed to their own approach, which is seen as primarily holist and idealist” (Thies, 160)A new interpretation of the foundations of realist theory was an attempt to improve and enhance classical realism on the basis of studies dependent and independent variables notions. This makes modern science of the classical theory, based on a comparative analysis.
Neorealism has aimed to combine the principles of classical realist theory of international systems. The international system is considered as a structure of relations among states - the main category of neorealism, which is derived from the concepts: conflict, cooperation (cooperation), the rate advantage, interest, perception, reality solutions. That is why neo-realism is sometimes called structural realism, forming the basis of which is associated with the name of the University of California Professor Kenneth Waltz.The theory of international relations of Waltz demonstrates a much broader understanding of the concept. Considering the problem of the use of force by states, he argues that the state is using force if the resulting assessment of the prospects for success finds out that the desired goals are more attractive than peace of mind. “Balance-of-power behavior by states is predicted from the structure of the international system.
A system is a set of interacting units having behavioral regularities and identity over time” (Nye, 241). Any country at any time to use force to implement its own policy, so other countries must be constantly ready to respond to force with force, or to pay for their peace of mind. The environment, in which the actions are taken, requires from the states certain behavior. Solving the dilemma of war and peace, the power of political elites are forced to consider not only their own interests, but also the situation developing in international relations. There should be analyzed three elements in the process of study of international relations - human, state and inter-state environment.The theorists of neo-realism in the first place raise the problem of studying the structure of the international system that reveals the balance of power and method of interaction between them. When cooperating states tend to self-preservation at the minimum, as much as possible - to the prevalence and outcome of their occurrence, resulting in uncoordinated activities of the international system, which are formed by constant political cooperation between the governments and transformed by changes in the distribution of their power capabilities. The international system combines two diametrically opposed qualities: anarchic and fairly rigid structural and conditional policy.
The constant tendency of the war is the dependent variable (the policy …