Philosophy essay sample
PHILOSOPHYUniversity:Student’s name:Course:Tutor:Date:Suspension of judgement is a cognitive process and a rational state of mind where an individual withholds judgements, especially when dealing with issues of morality and ethics. Since the ancient Greece to the time of the Descartes and beyond, most philosophers have used skepticism in their philosophical works (Descartes, 2010). In this manner, ancient skeptics argued against the senses, claiming that we actually might know nothing for sure, that everything we believe might as well be false. The attempt to understand this concept of skepticism brings in the aspect of suspension of judgement or assent. According to the skeptics, they are not actually denying the possibility of anything; rather, they are just suspending or withholding their judgement on things (Descartes, 2010). As opposed to suspension of judgement, in distinct perception there is no doubt of the knowledge of something. This aspect relies on distinctness and clarity of ideas. In this manner, an idea is distinct if we cannot possibly confuse it with anything else, and it is clear if we cannot help taking notice of it (Descartes, 2010). According to Descartes, he is completely sure that he thinks, and from this, that he exists. According to him, he is certain that he is thinking and he exists, and he clearly and distinctly perceives this fact (Descartes, 2010). The natural light of reason refers to the capacity of knowledge that Gods gives to everyone, by which people can know truths independently of divine revelation. In this manner, this aspect is concerned with the human senses. It differs from the suspension of judgement and distinct perception in the aspect that humans utilize their senses to tell truth rather than external influence of divine revelation (Descartes, 2010). However, Descartes did not believe that the information humans receive through their senses is necessarily accurate. The fruitional experience is involved in the non- verbal understanding of how things are. It is concerned with the experiences that people go through. It differs from all the other three aspects above in the aspect that it associates truth or knowledge with the experiences that an individual goes through (Descartes, 2010). The three substances that Descartes talks about in his meditations are the mind, body, and God. For him, reality consists of the three substances. According to Descartes, the essential property of the body is that it is “extended” and the essential property of the mind is that it thinks. In the illustration, Descartes states that every though is a modification of the Mind, and every physical object is a modification of matter (Descartes, 2010). The body is different from the Mind since they are two distinct substances; hence, the essential characteristics of the body must be different from those of the Mind (Descartes, 2010). This means that the body cannot think, and the mind cannot take up space or be extended. According to Descartes, the essential characteristic of God is that he is infinite. God is absolutely independent of all others in the aspect that it …
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