PICO Question Assignment
Youngblut & Brooten (2001) note that evidence-based practice (EBP) in nursing has gained momentum, while Stevens (2013) admit that it has echoed across nursing practice, education, and science. In nursing, EBP is used in sense of “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current based evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research” (Sackett et al., 1996, p. 71). While bridging theory and practice, EBP aims to improve the quality of services that are delivered to patients. The validity of this assertion is tested when examining the use of EBP in addressing teenage pregnancy.
In nursing, a health care issue can be addressed in different ways, including PICO, “a mnemonic used to describe the four elements of a good clinical question” (J. Otto Lottes Health Sciences Library, 2015). The PICO question includes patient (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), and outcome (O). The role of each element in addressing the raised problem is considered below.Population – pregnant teenagers. Oxford Dictionaries (2015) define teenagers as persons aged 13 and 19 years.Intervention – Teen pregnancy supportive programs. Johns et al (2000) note that most nursing programs aimed at pregnant teens and teenagers parents are not effective. It is attributed to the fact that they do not consider three critical practices that are youth development component, family involvement, and culturally relevant practices. Youth development is quite a broad concept. It includes creating preventive programs that are interesting to the target population. Many pregnant teenagers and teen parents do not attend programs because they think that they are boring and do not meet their needs.
The concept of youth development also includes helping pregnant teens and teen parents to cope with social stigma and to realize socially. This aspect is very important, as by age 22, only 50 percent of teen mothers will receive a high school diploma and only 30 will earn a General Education Development (GED) certificate (youth.gov). While lacking sufficient education, many teen mothers have low paid work or live on welfare, which also has a negative impact on the lives of their children who are forced to live in an inherent poverty.Family involvement suggests viewing family as an important agent of socialization and encouraging family members take an active part in supporting pregnant teenagers and teen parents. Culturally relevant practices ensure respectful attitude to an individual’s background and not discriminating on the basis of one’s ethnicity or culture (Chambers et al., 2013).Comparison – The absence of teen pregnancy preventive programs.Outcomes – Reducing negative health, social, and economic effects of teen pregnancy and parenting. Experts at youth.gov suggest that most common health effects of teen pregnancy include a higher risk for low birth weight and infant mortality, obstructed labor, and increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.
Social and economic effects of teen pregnancy are also numerous and include high drop out of school rates, unemployment, and higher reliance on welfare.Analysis …