"Anna Ollivander Case" by Breuer and Freud
The story of Fraulein Anna O. ("Anna Ollivander case") is a part of collective studies on hysteria by Breuer and Freud. Actually, that is the case Josef Breuer is best known for. Anna O. is a woman suffering from paralysis, loss of skin sensitivity, disorder of sight and speech, which are the classic symptoms of hysteria (Zangwill). With this patient, he had to deal in the years 1880-1881.Anna O. started suffering from her illness when her father got sick (and died ten months later).
She initially tirelessly cared for him, but then her own illness, manifested in bizarre altered states of consciousness, amnesia, speech disorganization, anorexia, muscle and sensory conversion syndromes, alienated from her dying father. Over the next year, her condition greatly deteriorated. Breuer saw the preoccupation with the subject of the death of Anna O. He noted, for example, that for all her strange and rapidly changing disturbances of consciousness was the one thing that seems to have remained most of the time perceived: the fact that her father is dead.At a time when Breuer treated with hypnosis Anna O., she had terrifying hallucinations, associated with the death of his father. Once, caring for him, she fainted, and in hallucination saw her father with the head of death.
A bit later the treatment, she looked into the mirror and saw in it not herself, but her father with death's head, stared at her. On another occasion, she had a vision of a black snake about to attack her father. Anna O. tried to fight with the snake, but her hand went to sleep, and in hallucinations her fingers turned into snakes, and each nail - in a tiny skull. Breuer believed that these hallucinatory images are generated by the fear of death, and that was the root cause of her illness.Breuer found out that the hysteria was associated with the traumatic experiences of the past, and its manifestations can reduce or nullify, if the painful memories will be played in a hypnotic state (p. 44-45).
Somewhat later, Breuer and Freud found that the method works without hypnosis. The case of Anna O. shows that quite a severe case of hysteria may occur, persist and be eliminated without any impact of the sexual elements.In the chapter "Adlerian Personality Theory and Psychotherapy" Lon Carlson, Richard E. Watts, and Michael Maniacci using the Adlerian approach are investigating what the lifestyle is, what are its particular characteristics and what consequences it causes. According to them, lifestyle is a kind of guide which helps to manage life. Secondly, it is a limiter, as far as "humans do not do certain things that fall outside the species-specific guidelines" (p. 44). Finally, it is a predictor, which gives a kind of rhythm and security to life. It allows developing habits to avoid constant cortical control.In 1956 A. Adler wrote that "four principal biological factors influence the development of the life style: (a) organ inferiority, (b) needs, (c) processing neurodynamics, and …