“Music as a Business”
The essay tells about the development of a musical business. During the Renaissance, a movable type of music printing was invented, which caused the composers to get more audience than before (Essay 7 75). The innovation meant that music services did not belong to the church only but could be purchased by any person who had money. The first person who printed polyphonic music was Italian printer Ottaviano Petrucci. Although his method was bulky and expensive, it is matchless even today. According to Petrucci, the sheet should be pressed three times: for the staves, for the notes and rests, and for the texts and decorative capitals (Essay 7 76). Petrucci got a patent for his invention and began to sell his first volume of Franco-Flemish chansons “Harmonice Musices” in 1501 (Essay 7 76). The second music publisher was Pierre Attaingnant of Paris, who invented another method of printing, which required only one operation. As a result, more exemplars could be printed and sold. Then, the essay provides a document, written by the Queen of England, France and Ireland, Elizabeth I, to Thomas Tallis and William Byrd. She granted them the right to decide whether a song can be printed and sold or not. They got this right for the term of 21 years and had to pay for the rent £30 every year.
After reading the essay, I found out that the history of a music business is not so long. People began to print and sell musical compositions only in the 16th century. Our generation used to buy CD-disks or listen to free music on the Internet. Those who play music have no problems with printing the notes and buying music books. However, several ages ago, it was a luxury, and only wealthy people could have bought the sheets with music notes. Besides, it was difficult to spread the music to different countries; therefore, when the methods of printing appeared, it was a great progress in music business development. I thought that, even in ancient times, people wanted to enrich themselves and tried to use any possibility for it. For instance, when I read the document by Queen Elizabeth I, I considered that her writing gave the right, which was similar to the contemporary intellectual property right. People had to pay for it in order to save their right, which allowed them to own and rule that or this thing. Thus, I understood that when music business began, it was so popular that people found it profitable to buy the patents and sell music books. Today, music is everywhere, and there is no need to pay much money to get a piece of music.
“Josquin des Prez in the Eyes of His Contemporaries”
The essay recounts of the outstanding personality of the 16th century, Josquin des Prez. He was a very talented man, who published his works only after deliberate proof-reading, as well as released his music after several years of personal enjoyment …