1 – The thing that has had a large share in informing moral doctrines is a principle of utility. Other attempts to create a moral system were influenced by the problem of the absence of some unified pristine moral law or the order of precedence among them in case there are many.
2 – Kant has managed to lay down the first universal principle that could be an origin of all morality. But, unfortunately, wasn’t able to prove that this principle possessed an ability to stop people from misusing it by adopting immoral rules and behaviors.
3 – The goals are to bring arguments, defending the Utilitarianism, to clarify the correct way of understanding the utilitarian formula, distinguish Utilitarianism from anything else and dispose of the objections against it which had been based on the misinterpretation of theory.
4 – The Greatest Happiness Principle claims that actions are good in proportion as they are directed promotion of happiness and bad as they tend to produce the thing opposite to happiness. Utility is the pursuit of happiness plus the prevention or mitigation of unhappiness. Happiness - is the absence of pain and the realization of happiness at the same.
5 – The main argument against the opinion that utilitarianism is a “doctrine worthy of a swine” is based on statement that those, who think like that, simply consider human beings to have the same nature as pigs and deny human’s ability to derive pleasure from delicate and matters.
6 – The Utilitarianism grew from the ideas that happiness is actually the end of life. But it developed in the way that happiness is not a state of constant pleasure, but is represented by brief moments of life. Living should not be a never-ending pursuit of these moments but have a deep interest in a world.
7 – The only justification of scarifying yourself is increasing a total level of happiness for the others. If that doesn’t happen, a sacrifice is considered to be a waste.
8 – “Truth problem” is that ”Motivation problem” is that almost any action no matter the ethics system is done from other motives than duty.
9 - The objectors to utilitarianism affirm that this teaching renders men cold, chills their moral feelings towards individuals, makes people regard only the consideration of the consequences without taking into account qualities from which those actions origin. But any other ethic system is based on estimating not actions but agents which seems to have no logic.
10 – The only sort of lying acceptable is withholding an information from malefactor or an ill person if this is dangerous for the health.
11 – It is not a fault of a creed, but of impossibility of human nature to rigidly follow the rules all the time.The best argument for the Greatest Happiness principle is that, if Utility is doctrine is true, ethics finally gets the functioning first principle which is directs all the people to achieve personal happiness in a deep and diverse sense without …