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Student’s NameProfessor’s NameSubjectDD Month YYYYThe Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution is the transition from manual to machine labor, from manufacture to factory, which was observed in the leading Western countries during the XVIII-XIX centuries. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the last third of the XVIII century and became comprehensive in the first half of the XIX century, covering the other countries of Europe and America.The main feature of the Industrial Revolution was industrialization - the transition from a predominantly agrarian economy to industrial production, which resulted in the transformation of an agrarian society into an industrial. The industrial revolution took place in different countries not at the same time, but in general it can be assumed that the period when these changes started was from the second half of the XVIII century and lasted till the XIX century. A characteristic feature of the industrial revolution is the rapid growth of the productive forces on the basis of large-scale machine industry and adoption of capitalism as the dominant global economic system.Key developments that constituted the Industrial RevolutionThe success of the industrial revolution in Britain was based on several innovations that have emerged at the end of the XVIII century:Textiles. Spinning yarns of cotton on spinning machines by Arkwright (1769), Hargreaves and Crompton. Subsequently, similar techniques were used for spinning yarn from wool and linen.Steam engine. James Watt invented and patented it in 1775 a steam engine, which was originally used in the mines for pumping water. But in 1780 it has already been applied in some other mechanisms, replacing hydropower where it was available.Metallurgy. In ferrous metallurgy coke coal replaced the charcoal, as previously it had been used in the production of lead and copper. Coke after Industrial revolution was used not only in the manufacture of pig iron in blast furnaces, but also for cast iron, including the puddling, invented by Henry Cort in 1783-1784.Challenges to the ideals of industrial capitalism, colonialism, and nation-statesForeign-economic conditions of the industrial revolution in England were in ruthlessly plunder of the colonies. At the end of the XVIII century England has turned into the largest naval and colonial country. Huge profits which were provided by dominance in world trade, using the infinite riches of North America, India and other colonial possessions, invested in British industry.The export of capital from British colonies was one of the sources of accumulation of capital in the metropolis that contributed to the industrial revolution in Britain and the establishment of the country's leadership in the world's industrial development. At the same time, a similar situation in other countries (e.g., Spain, Portugal) did not lead to an acceleration of economic development. In addition, the industry has successfully developed in a number of countries which did not have colonies, for example, in Sweden, Prussia, and USA.The most important prerequisite of the Industrial Revolution was the English Bourgeois Revolution in the mid of XVII century, which removed obstacles to the growth of capitalist relations and paved the way for the powerful …
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